This work examines how students’ character, habits, and mindset influence teaching-learning processes. Until recently character education was a matter of moral and civic education, but recent research into non-cognitive skills and social-emotional learning reflects how these personality traits give steadiness to school teaching-learning processes. Neuroscience here emphasises the value of executive functions: attention, inhibitory control, and planning are moments where the student unfolds her learning. Classical intelligence (IQ) focuses on analytical understanding, a specific moment; character intelligence focuses on the volitional processes that create the intellectual work that begins in the classroom and ends with planning of study at home. The first objective is to define non-cognitive skills, executive functions, and character, related frameworks that are present in school and family life. After this, the second objective is to assess how the social-family environment affects these processes. The third objective, in parallel with carrying out the study, is to propose tools to measure these strengths in elementary school: BFQ-N and BRIEF 2. If character education models for learning are proposed, tools should be offered to measure it intended to test the success of the programmes. The conclusion identifies a major initiative: universities, schools, and educational agents should think about a new integrated model of education for their students based on this convergence between character and classical intelligence. School failure and dropout have academic explanations but also family and personal ones. This complex and changing third millennium requires robust and flexible skills to face the challenges of a society that has still not shown us where it is going.

This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 272 of the revista española de pedagogía. For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers. Please, cite this article as follows: De Bofarull, I. (2019). Carácter y hábitos para el aprendizaje: definición y proyecto de medición | Character and learning habits: definition and measurement proposal. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 77 (272), 47-65. doi: 10.22550/REP77-1-2019-03

Referencias | References

Ainsworth, M. D., & Marvin, R. S. (1995). On the shaping of attachment theory and research: An interview with Mary DS Ainsworth (Fall 1994). Monographs of the society for research in child development, 60 (2-3), 3-21. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1166167

Alcover, C., & Rodríguez, F. (2012). Plasticidad Cerebral y Hábito en William James: un Antecedente para la Neurociencia Social. Psychologia Latina, 3 (1), 1-9.

Althof, W., & Berkowitz, M. W. (2006). Moral education and character education: Their relationship and roles in citizenship education. Journal of Moral Education, 35 (4), 495-518. doi: 10.1080/03057240601012204

Álvarez-Hevia, D. M. (2018). Aproximación crítica a la Inteligencia Emocional como discurso dominante en el ámbito educativo. revista española de pedagogía, 76 (269), 7-23. doi: 10.22550/REP76-1-2018-01

Ananiadou, K., & Claro, M. (2009). 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, 41. doi: 10.1787/19939019

Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84 (2), 191-215. doi: 10.1016/0146-6402(78)90002-4

Bernacer, J., & Murillo, J. I. (2014). The Aristotelian conception of habit and its contribution to human neuroscience. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 1-10. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00883

Bernstein, B. (1989). Clases, códigos y control (Vol. 1). Madrid: Ediciones Akal. Bourdieu, P. (1979). La distinction. Critique sociale du jugement. Paris: Minuit.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). Habitus, code et codification. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 64 (1), 40-44. doi: 10.3406/arss.1986.2335

Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (2009). The ecology of human development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

CASEL (2017). Educating Hearts, Inspiring Minds. Core SEL competencies. Retrieved from https://casel.org/core-competencies/ (Consulted on 15/01/2018).

Carrasco-Ortiz, M. Á., Holgado-Tello, F. P., & Del Barrio-Gandara, M. V. (2005). Dimensionalidad del cuestionario de los cinco grandes (BFQ-N) en población infantil española. Psicothema, 17 (2), 286-291.

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University (2017). Three Principles to Improve Outcomes for Children and Families. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2gSMqh2 (Consulted on 20/02/2018).

Chen, Q., & Yan, Z. (2016). Does multitasking with mobile phones affect learning? A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.047

Damasio, A. R. (1996). El error de Descartes. Barcelona: Crítica. De Bofarull, I. (2005). Ocio y tiempo libre: un reto para la familia. Pamplona: Eunsa.

De Bofarull, I., & Coma, M. A. (2017). Possibilities and limitations of digital multitasking for school homework. Quaderns de Polítiques Familiars, 3, 48-58.

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual review of psychology, 64, 135-168. doi: 10.1146/annurevpsych-113011-143750

Diamond, A. (2014). Want to optimize executive functions and academic outcomes? Simple, just nourish the human spirit. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, 37, 205-232.

Diamond, A., & Ay Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333 (6045), 959-964. doi: 10.1126/science.1204529

Duckworth, A. L. (2013). True grit. The Observer, 26 (4), 1-3.

Durlak, J. A., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R., Weissberg, R. P., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82, 405-432.

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House Incorporated.

Elias, M. J., Leverett, L., Duffell, J. C., Humphrey, N., Stepney, C., & Ferrito, J. (2015). Integrating SEL with related prevention and youth development approaches. In J. A. Durlak, C. E. Domitrovich, R. P. Weissberg, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook for social and emotional learning: Research and practice (pp. 33-49). New York: Guilford.

Galán-Rodríguez, A. (2010). El apego: Más allá de un concepto inspirador. Revista de la Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría, 30 (4), 581-595.

Gervilla, E. (2000). Un modelo axiológico de educación integral. revista española de pedagogía, 58 (215), 39-57.

Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Test review behavior rating inventory of executive function. Child Neuropsychology, 6 (3), 235-238.

Hanscombe, K. B., Haworth, C. M., Davis, O. S., Jaffee, S. R., & Plomin, R. (2011). Chaotic homes

and school achievement: a twin study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52 (11), 1212-1220. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02421.x

Heckman, J. J., (2011). The Economics of Inequality: The Value of Early Childhood Education. American Educator, 35 (1), 31-35.

Heckman, J. J., & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour economics, 19 (4), 451-464.

Heckman, J. J., & Kautz, T. (2013). Fostering and Measuring Skills: Interventions That Improve Character and Cognition. National Bureau of Economic Research, 19656. doi: 10.3386/w19656

Hoge, E., Bickham, D., & Cantor, J. (2017). Digital media, anxiety, and depression in children. Pediatrics, 140 (2), S76-S80. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758G

James, W. (1899). Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life's Ideals. Boston: Harvard University Press.

Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79 (1), 491-525.

John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin, & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford Press.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical psychology. Science and practice, 10 (2), 144-156.

Kautz, T., Heckman, J. J., Diris, R., Ter Weel, B., & Borghans, L. (2014). Fostering and measuring skills: Improving cognitive and non-cognitive skills to promote lifetime success. National Bureau of Economic Research, 20749, 1-118. doi: 10.3386/w20749

Khine, M. S., & Areepattamannil, S. (Eds.) (2016). Non-cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Lickona, T. (1991). Educating for character: How our schools can teach respect and responsibility. New York: Bantam Books.

Maldonado-Belmonte, M. J. (2016). Adaptación del BRIEF (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function) a población española y su utilidad para el diagnóstico del trastorno por déficit de atención-hiperactividad subtipos inatento y combinado (Doctoral thesis). Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Retrieved from http://eprints.ucm.es/37563/1/T37182.pdf (Consulted on 14/02/2018).

Malikail, J. (2003). Moral character: hexis, habitus and ‘habit’. An Internet Journal of Philosophy, 7, 1-22.

McEwen, B. S. (2016). In pursuit of resilience: stress, epigenetics, and brain plasticity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1373 (1), 56-64.

Moullin, S., Waldfogel, J., & Washbrook, E. (2014). Baby Bonds: Parenting, attachment and a secure base for children. The Sutton Trust. Retrieved from http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/30276/1/baby-bonds-final-1.pdf (Consulted on 24/10/2018).

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2016). Parenting matters: Supporting parents of children ages 0-8. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

National Research Council (2012). Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills for the 21st century. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Nucci, L., Krettenauer, T., & Narváez, D. (Eds.) (2014). Handbook of moral and character education. New York: Routledge. OECD (2013). PISA 2012 Results: Ready to Learn (Volume III): Students' Engagement, Drive and Self-Beliefs. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Palmero-Cámara, C., Jiménez-Martín, J., & Jiménez- Eguizábal, A. (2015). Ocio, Política y Educación. Reflexiones y retos veinticinco siglos después de Aristóteles. revista española de pedagogía, 73 (216), 5-21.

Perry, B. D. (2009). Examining child maltreatment through a neurodevelopmental lens: Clinical applications of the neurosequential model of therapeutics. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 14 (4), 240-255. Real Academia Española (2017). Diccionario de la lengua española (23.1 ed.). Retrieved from http://www.rae.es/ (Consulted on 25/10/18).

Roberts, R. D., Martin, J., & Olaru, G. (2015). A Rosetta Stone for noncognitive skills: Understanding, assessing, and enhancing noncognitive skills in primary and secondary education. New York: Asia Society and ProExam.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology, 25 (1), 54-67.

Scherer, R., & Hatlevik, O. E. (2017). «Sore eyes and distracted» or «excited and confident»?-The role of perceived negative consequences of using ICT for perceived usefulness and self-efficacy. Computers & Education, 115, 188-200. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.08.003

Shaheen, S. (2014). How child's play impacts executive function-related behaviors. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 3 (3), 182-187. doi: 10.1080/21622965.2013.839612

Shonkoff, J. P., Boyce, W. T., & McEwen, B. S. (2009). Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. Jama, 301 (21), 2252-2259. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.754

Soprano, A. M. (2003). Evaluación de las funciones ejecutivas en el niño. Revista de neurología, 37 (1), 44-50.

Taylor, R. D., Oberle, E., Durlak, J. A., & Weissberg, R. P. (2017). Promoting Positive Youth Development Through School-Based Social and Emotional Learning Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of Follow-Up Effects. Child development, 88 (4), 1156-1171. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12864

Thoilliez, B. (2013). El pensamiento pedagógico de William James: el tactful teacher y la educación moral. Foro de Educación, 11 (15), 83-102. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2013.011.015.004

Tough, P. (2014). Cómo triunfan los niños: Determinación, curiosidad y el poder del carácter. Madrid: Palabra. Tough, P. (2016). Helping children succeed: What works and why. New York: Random House.

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.) (2015). American Psychological Association. APA Dictionary of Psychology. Washington: American Psychological Association.

Vernon-Feagans, L., Willoughby, M., & Garrett- Peters, P. (2016). Predictors of behavioral regulation in kindergarten: Household chaos, parenting, and early executive functions. Developmental psychology, 52 (3), 430-441.

Vigo, A. G. (2012). Deliberación y decisión según Aristóteles. Tópicos, 43, 51-92. West, M. R., Kraft, M. A., Finn, A. S., Martin, R. E., Duckworth, A. L., Gabrieli, C. F., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2016). Promise and paradox: Measuring students’ non-cognitive skills and the impact of schooling. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 38 (1), 148-170. doi: 10.3102/0162373715597298

Author Biography

Ignasi de Bofarull holds a degree in Geography and History from the Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona and a PhD in Humanities from the Universitat Internacional de Catalunya. He currently holds the positions of Associate Professor of Family Sociology and Education at the UIC Faculty of Education, Researcher at the UIC Institute for Advanced Studies of the Family and Director of the research group of the Generalitat de Catalunya called Parentalitat, Igualtat i Conciliació.


Licencia Creative Commons | Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 4.0.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



Palabras clave | Keywords

21stcenturyskills, attachment, character, executivefunctions, mind-set, non-cognitiveskills, socialandemotionallearning, wholeeducation