This work focusses on cyberbullying, analysing the results of a survey administered to a representative sample of Spanish internet users aged between 9 and 16. The data show that harassment on digital devices is part of the climate of violence among pre-teenagers and teenagers, where face-to-face bullying is much higher than online bullying. Although bullying occurs in different ways, and these tend to overlap, the most frequent form is offline bullying. The prevalence of cyberbullying varies considerably by age, tending to increase as the subjects’ age increases, whereas offline bullying decreases among 15-16-year-olds. The boundary between victims and perpetrators is difficult to sketch in cyberbullying as three out of four children who admit having treated others in a hurtful or nasty way on the Internet or with mobile phones have themselves been treated in this way by others. The evidence regarding 13-14-year-olds is especially worrying as they are more involved in cyberbullying and a great many of them say they have felt very upset when victimized. The results display a need to prevent and deal with cyberbullying at school, as this is the most effective and equitable site for intervention.

This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 273 of the revista española de pedagogía. For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers. Please, cite this article as follows: Garmendia Larrañaga, M., Jiménez Iglesias., E., & Larrañaga Aizpuru, N. (2019). Bullying y ciberbullying: victimización, acoso y daño. Necesidad de intervenir en el entorno escolar | Bullying and cyberbullying: victimisation, harassment, and harm. The need to intervene in the educational centre. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 77 (273), 295-312. doi: 10.22550/REP77-2-2019-08

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Author Biography

Maialen Garmendia Larrañaga is a PhD in Sociology and Political Sciences from the Universidad de Deusto. Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Social Work of the Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU. Her research focusses on communication technologies, everyday life, children and adolescents, and gender issues. Since 2006 she has been part of the EU Kids Online research network.


Estefanía Jiménez Iglesias is a PhD in Audiovisual Communication from the Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU. Senior Lecturer in the Audiovisual Communication and Advertising Department of the UPV/EHU. Her research work focusses on the digital life of children and adolescents. She has been part of the EU Kids Online network since 2012.


Nekane Larrañaga Aizpuru is a PhD in Sociology and Political Sciences from the Universidad de Deusto. Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology and Social Work of the Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU. Her research activity focusses on diversity, intercultural and interethnic relationships, education and values, bilingualism, identity, citizenship and acculturation.


Licencia Creative Commons | Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 4.0.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



Palabras clave | Keywords

bullying, mobiledevices, risks, schoollife, teenagers