Scientific literature has shown that teacher characteristics and skills are one of the main sources of variation in students’ academic performance. This potential that teachers have in improving the quality of the education system justifies the importance of identifying the teacher-related factors that are positively related to student learning. This study aims to contribute to this purpose by analysing the professional profile of a good secondary school teacher from the perspective of students, members of school management teams, and the teachers themselves. For this purpose, a qualitative research design was established based on an analysis of the views of the participants. Five focus groups were conducted with the participation of five members of school management teams, nine teachers and nine students. Through both the a priori and inductive coding of the content of these focus groups, the professional profile of a good teacher was identified. This profile was made up of three teaching skills and seven personal skills, specified in 79 actions. The integration of all the participants’ perspectives enabled the creation of a comprehensive proposal of an effective teacher by capturing the nuances provided by each individual perspective. Based on this, new research and actions can be designed that contribute to improving the quality of initial and in-service training for secondary school teachers.

Please, cite this article as follows: López-Martín, E., Gutiérrez-de-Rozas, B., Otero-Mayer, A., & Expósito-Casas, E. (2022). Análisis cualitativo del perfil profesional del buen docente de educación secundaria | Qualitative analysis of the professional profile of a good secondary school teacher. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 80 (283), 493-516. 10.22550/REP80-3-2022-04

Referencias | References

Alonso-Sainz, T. (2021). ¿Qué caracteriza a un «buen docente”? Percepciones de sus protagonistas [What characterises a “good teacher”? Perceptions of its protagonists]. Profeso- rado, Revista De Currículum Y Formación Del Profesorado, 25 (2), 165-191. https://doi. org/10.30827/profesorado.v25i2.18445

Bisquerra, R., & Pérez, N. (2007). Las competencias emocionales [Emotional competences]. Educación XX1, 10, 61-82. 10.5944/ educxx1.1.10.297

Carter, N., Bryant-Lukosius, D., DiCenso, A., Blythe, J., & Neville, A. (2014). The use of triangulation in qualitative research. Oncology Nursing Forum, 41 (5), 545-547.

Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage Publications.

Danielson, C. (2013). The framework for teaching evaluation instrument. https://bibliotecadigital. mineduc.cl/handle/20.500.12365/17302

García-García, M., Biencinto, C., Carpintero, E., Villamor, P., Camilli, C., Pastor, L., Serrano, S., Huetos, M., Núñez, C., Arias, J., Bravo, J. L, Caravantes, A., del Mazo, J. C., Martínez, S., Sánchez, J. A., González, D., Arias, J. M., Pérez, H., Burguera, J., … & Ramos, G. (2017, June 28-30). Assessment of teaching competences for inclusion and excellence: preliminary results on teachers’ perceptions. XVIII International Congress of Educational Research: Interdisciplinarity and Transfer AIDIPE, Salamanca, Spain. https://aidipe2017.aidipe.org/files/2017/07/ACTAS_AIDIPE_2017.pdf

Gutiérrez-de-Rozas, B., López-Martín, E., & Carpintero Molina, E. (in press). Condicionantes del rendimiento académico: metasíntesis de 25 años de meta-análisis. Revista de Educación, 398.

Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann L. (2017). School resources and student achievement: A review of cross-country economic research. In M. Rosén, K. Y. Hansen, & U. Wolff (Eds), Cognitive Abilities and Educational Outcomes. Methodology of Educational Measurement and Assessment (pp. 149-171). Springer. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-319-43473-5_8

Hattie, J. (2003, October). Teachers make a difference, what is the research evidence? [Paper presentation]. Building teacher quality: What does the research tell us. ACER Research Conference, Melbourne, Australia. https://research.acer. edu.au/research_conference_2003/4/

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge.

Hattie, J. (2017). Visible learning plus. 250+ influences on student achievement. https://visible-learning.org/wp-content/ uploads/2018/03/250-Influences-Final-Effect- Size-List-2017_VLPLUS.pdf

Iglesias-Díaz, P., & Romero-Pérez, C. (2021). Aulas afectivas e inclusivas y bienestar adolescente: una revisión sistemática [Emotional and inclusive classrooms and adolescent well-being: A systematic review]. Educación XX1, 24 (2), 305-350. 10.5944/educXX1.28705

Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of teaching: A comprehensive framework for effec- tive instruction. ASCD.

Ministerio de Educación y Formación Profesional (2022). Documento para debate. 24 propuestas de reforma para la mejora de la profesión docente [Discussion Paper. 24 reform proposals for the improvement of the teaching profession]. https://educagob.educacionyfp.gob.es/dam/ jcr:adf4f050-9832-4a88-9cd2-96cd3519c664/documento-de-debate-24-propuestas-de-reforma-profesion-docente.pdf

Muijs, D., & Reynolds, D. (2017). Effective teaching: Evidence and practice. Sage.

Opdenakker, M. C., & Van Damme, J. (2006). Teacher characteristics and teaching styles as effectiveness enhancing factors of classroom practice. Teaching and teacher education, 22 (1), 1-21. 10.1016/j. tate.2005.07.008

Reoyo, N., Carbonero, M. Á., & Martín, L. J. (2017). Características de eficacia docente desde las perspectivas del profesorado y futuro profesorado de secundaria [In-service and preservice teachers´ perceptions of characteristics of effective secondary school teachers]. Revista de Educación, 376, 62-86. 10.4438/1988-592X-RE-2017-376-344

Shen, J., Wu, H., Reeves, P., Zheng, Y., Ryan, L., & Anderson, D. (2020). The association between teacher leadership and student achievement: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 100357, 1-19. 10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100357

Smith, E., & Gorard, S. (2007). Improving teacher quality: Lessons from America’s No child left behind. Cambridge Journal of Education, 37 (2), 191-206. 10.1080/03057640701372426

Stronge, J. H. (2018). Qualities of effective teachers. ASCD.

Stronge, J. H., Ward, T. J., & Grant, L. W. (2011). What makes good teachers good? A cross-case

analysis of the connection between teacher effectiveness and student achievement. Journal of Teacher Education, 62 (4), 339-355. 10.1177/0022487111404241

Tapani, A., & Salonen, A. O. (2019). Identifying teachers’ competencies in Finnish vocational education. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, 6 (3), 243-260. 10.13152/IJRVET.6.3.3

UNICEF (2015). Cuaderno de integración curricular de Educación en Derechos. https://www.unicef.es/educa/biblioteca/guia-integracion-curricular-educacion-derechos-infancia

Villaverde-Caramés, E. J., Fernández-Villarino, Á., Toja-Reboredo, B., & González-Valeiro, M. Á. (2021). Revisión de la literatura sobre las características que definen a un buen docente de Educación Física: Consideraciones desde la formación del profesorado [A literature review of the characteristics that define a good physical education teacher: considerations from teacher training]. Retos, 41, 471-479. 10.47197/retos.v0i41.84421

Walsh, K. (2001). Teacher certification reconsidered: Stumbling for quality. The Abell Foundation.

Williams, R. E. (2010). Administrator and teacher perceptions of the qualities of effective teachers. The College of William and Mary.

The Wing Institute (2019). Teacher Competencies. https://www.winginstitute.org/quality-teachers-compentencies

Author Biography

Esther López-Martín has a PhD in Education Science from Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM). Since 2019, she has worked as an associate professor at the Department of Research and Diagnostic Methods in Education II at Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED). Her main lines of research focus on the evaluation of students’ academic perfor- mance and the associated factors, with a special focus on the characteristics and skills of teachers.


Belén Gutiérrez-de-Rozas holds a degree in Pedagogy (special prize) from UNED and a Master’s in Educational Psychology (academic excellence grant) from UCM. She is currently a trainee re- searcher at the Department of Research and Diagnostic Methods in Education II at UNED. Her research focuses on the study of failing to achieve the minimum level of academic qualification and early school leaving.


Andrea Otero-Mayer holds a degree in Social Education from UNED, for which she was awarded a special degree prize. In February 2019, she joined the Department of Research and Diagnostic Methods in Education II at UNED, after being awarded pre-doctoral financial support for research training. She carried out two research periods at Universidade do Porto in 2021 and 2022, and she was awarded a PhD with a distinction cum laude, continuing her work under a post-doctoral contract.


Eva Expósito-Casas holds a PhD in Education from UCM. She is currently an associate professor at the Department of Research and Diagnostic Methods in Education II at UNED. She is a member of the UCM MESE research group, which researches the measurement and evaluation of education systems, and the GRISOP research group, which researches educational and career guidance systems and the skills of guidance professionals.


Licencia Creative Commons | Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 4.0.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



Palabras clave | Keywords

focus groups, qualitative research, teacher effectiveness, teacher evaluation, teacher skills