This study, based on the learning patterns model, analyses the relationship between different regulation profiles and satisfaction with a flipped-classroom didactic experience at university. A profile of genuine self-regulation is identified, as well as learning profiles based on external regulation and passive regulation. A total of 178 university students participate, voluntarily answering the regulation strategies subscales of the ILS Inventory and another final questionnaire about satisfaction with the flipped classroom and their perceived learning during this didactic experience. The results show a clear relationship between the self-regulation profile and satisfaction with the flipped classroom, although satisfaction was also found in students with an external regulation profile. However, this last group did not show satisfaction with their academic outcome. Another profile that was less adaptive thanks to its passiveness towards regulation was also identified. The results are discussed and the importance of designing personalised learning itineraries based on the specific command of regulation strategies is emphasised. Consequently, the design of educational actions should consider the regulation profile to adapt to students’ specific characteristics and guarantee the success of the didactic strategy.

Referencias | References

Ahmedi, S. (2022). Learning patterns and social-emotional learning of Balkan students in secondary education [Doctoral dissertation]. TDX (Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa). http:// hdl.handle.net/10803/688526

Alamry, A. M. (2017). Flipped learning and self-regulated learning experiences in higher education: A qualitative case study [Doctoral dissertation]. Western Sydney University. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.7/uws:45934

Aslan, S. A. (2022). The effect of flipped classroom approach on learning achievement, online self-regulation and interaction in synchronous distance education. Journal of Educational Technology and Online Learning, 5 (3), 535-552. https://doi.org/10.31681/jetol.1094205

Bredow, C. A., Roehling, P. V., Knorp, A. J., & Sweet, A. M. (2021). To flip or not to flip? A meta-analysis of the efficacy of flipped learning in higher education. Review of Educational Research, 91 (6), 878-918. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543211019122

Broc, M. Á. (2011). Voluntad para estudiar, regulación del esfuerzo, gestión eficaz del tiempo y rendimiento académico en alumnos universitarios [Willingness to study, effort regulation, effective time management and academic performance in university students]. Revista de Investigación Educativa, 29 (1), 171-185. https://revistas.um.es/rie/arti- cle/view/110731

Cavalcante, A., James, D., Santos, D., & Ferreira, U. (2021). Regulation of flipped learning activities in programming: A systematic review. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 9 (8). https://doi.org/10.31686/iji- er.vol9.iss8.3265

Chang, C., Kao, C., & Hwang, G. (2020). Facilitating students’ critical thinking and decision-making performances: A flipped classroom for neonatal health care training. Educational Technology & Society, 23 (2), 32-46. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26921132

Chen, T., Luo, H., Wang, P., &in, X., & Yang, J. (2023). The role of pre-class and in-class behaviors in predicting learning performance and experience in flipped classrooms. Heliyon, 9 (4), e15234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heli-yon.2023.e15234

De la Fuente, J., Martínez-Vicente, J. M., Santos, F. H., Sander, P., Fadda, S., Karagiannopoulou, A., Boruchovitch, E., & Kauffman, D. F. (2022). Advances on self-regulation models: A new research agenda through the Sr vs Er behavior theory in different psychology contexts. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 861493. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fpsyg.2022.861493

De la Fuente, J., Paolini, P. V., Vera-Martínez, M., & Garzón-Umerenkova, A. (2020). Effect of levels of self-regulation and situational stress on achievement emotions in undergraduate students: Class, study and testing. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (12), 4293. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph17124293

Doo, M. Y., & Bonk, C. J. (2020). The effects of self-efficacy, self-regulation and social presence on learning engagement in a large university class using flipped learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 36 (6), 997-1010. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12455

Fidan, M. (2023). The effects of microlearning-supported flipped classroom on pre-service teachers’ learning performance, motivation and engagement. Education and Information Technologies, (28), 12687-12714. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10639-023-11639-2

Galindo-Dominguez, H. (2021). Flipped classroom in the educational system: Trend or effective pedagogical model compared to other methodologies? Educational Technology & Society, 24 (3), 44-60. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27032855

González-Zamar, M.-D., & Abad-Segura, E. (2022). Global evidence on flipped learning in higher education. Education Sciences, 12 (8), 515. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12080515

Han, J., DiGiacomo, D. y Usher, E. (2023a) College students’ self-regulation in asynchronous online courses during COVID-19. Studies in Higher Education, 48 (9), 1440-1454. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2023.2201608

Han, H., Røkenes, F. M. y Krumsvik, R. J. (2023b). Student teachers’ perceptions of flipped classroom in EFL teacher education. Education and Information Technologies.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-023-11839-w

Hyppönen, L., Hirsto, L., & Sointu, E. (2019). Perspectives on university students’ self-regulated learning, task-avoidance, time management and achievement in a flipped classroom context. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 18 (13), 87-106. http://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.18.13.5

Jafarian, A., Salah, R. M., Alsadoon, A., Patel, S., Alves, G. R., & Prasad, P. W. C. (2021). Modify flipped model of co-regulation and shared-regulation impact in higher education, and role of facilitator on student’s achievement. In The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Ed.), International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI) (pp. 925-932). IEEE Computer Society. http://doi.org/10.1109/ CSCI54926.2021.00066

Jung, H., Park, S. W., Kim, H. S., & Park, J. (2022). The effects of the regulated learning-supported flipped classroom on student performance. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, (34), 132-153. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-21-09284-0

Kapur, M., Hattie, J., Grossman, I., & Sinha, T. (2022). Fail, flip, fix, and feed – Rethinking flipped learning: A review of meta-analyses and a subsequent meta-analysis. Frontiers in Education, 7, 956416. https://doi.org/10.3389/fed- uc.2022.956416

Kim, Y., Kim, N., & Chae, M. (2021). Effects of flipped learning on nursing students: A mixed methods study. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 18 (3), e12425. https://doi. org/10.1111/jjns.12425

Klimova, B., Zamborova, K., Cierniak-Emerych, A., & Dziuba, S. (2022). University students and their ability to perform self-regulated online learning under the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in psychology, 13, 781715. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.781715

Kyndt, E., Donche, V., Trigwell, K., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2017). Higher education transitions: Theory and research. Routledge.

Latorre-Cosculluela, C., Suárez, C., Quiroga, S., Anzano-Oto, S., Lira-Rodríguez, E., & Salamanca-Villate, A. (2022). Facilitating self-efficacy in university students: An interactive approach with flipped classroom. Higher Education Research & Development, 41 (5), 1603-1617. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2021.1937067

Llic, U. (2021). Online course satisfaction in a holistic flipped classroom approach. Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, 4 (3), 432-447. http://doi.org/10.31681/ jetol.935325

López Belmonte, J., Pozo Sánchez, S., Fuentes Cabrera, A. y López Nuñez, J. A. (2019). Creación de contenidos y flipped learning: un binomio necesario para la educación del nuevo milenio [Content creation and flipped learning: A necessary pairing for education in the new millennium]. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 77 (274), 535-555. https://doi. org/10.22550/REP77-3-2019-07

Luo, Z., O’Steen, B., & Brown, C. (2020). Flipped learning wheel (FLW): A framework and process design for flipped L2 writing classes. Smart Learning Environments, (7), 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40561-020-00121-y

Mahmood, A. M., & Mohammadzadeh, B. (2022). The effectiveness of ICT-supported flipped learning in an EFL context: A case of northern Iraq. Frontiers in Psychology, (13), 943956. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.943956

Martínez-Fernández, J. R. (1999). Aprendizaje en la universidad. Del énfasis en los productos al énfasis en los procesos [Learning at university. From an emphasis on products to an emphasis on processes.]. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 31 (3), 491-504. https://www.redalyc.org/ pdf/805/80531305.pdf

Martínez-Fernández, J. R. (2012). Escala de regulación [Regulation scale] [Unpublished document]. Grup de Recerca PAFIU, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Martínez-Fernández, J. R., & Vermunt, J. D. (2015). A cross-cultural analysis of the patterns of learning and academic performance of Spanish and Latin-American undergraduates. Studies in Higher Education, 40 (2), 278-295. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013.823934

Memon, T. D., Jurin, M., Kwan, P., Jan, T., Sidnal, N., & Nafi, N. (2021). Studying learner’s perception of attaining graduate attributes in capstone project units using online flipped classroom. Education Sciences, 11 (11), 698. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11110698

Mengual-Andrés, S., López Belmonte, J., Fuentes Cabrera, A., & Pozo Sánchez, S. (2020). Modelo estructural de factores extrínsecos influyentes en el flipped learning [Structural model of extrinsic factors affecting flipped learning]. Educación XX1, 23 (1), 75-101. https://doi.org/10.5944/ educxx1.23840

Monereo, C., Castelló, M., & Martínez-Fernández, J. R. (2013). Prediction of success in teamwork secondary students. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 18 (2), 235-255. https://doi. org/10.1387/RevPsicodidact.6776

Montgomery, A. P., Mousavi, A., Carbonaro, M., Hayward, A. V., & Dunn, W. (2019). Using learning analytics to explore self-regulated learning in flipped blended learning music teacher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50 (1), 114-127. http://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12590

Moreno-Guerrero, A. J., Soler-Costa, R., Marín-Marín, J. A., & López-Belmonte, J. (2021). Flipped learning y buenas prácticas docentes en educación secundaria [Flipped learning and good teaching practices in secondary education]. Comunicar, (68), 107-117. https://doi.org/10.3916/C68-2021-09

Nacaroğlu, O., & Bektaş, O. (2023). The effect of the flipped classroom model on gifted students’ self-regulation skills and academic achievement. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 47, 101244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2023.101244

Noguera, I., Albó, L., & Beardsley, M. (2022). University students’ preference for flexible teaching models that foster constructivist learning practices. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 38 (4), 22-39. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.7968

Noguera, I., Robalino, P. E., & Ahmedi, S. (2023). The flexibility of the flipped classroom for the design of mediated and self-regulated learning scenarios. RIED-Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distancia, 26 (2), 155-173. https://doi.org/10.5944/ried.26.2.36035

Park, S., & Kim, N. H. (2022). University students’ self-regulation, engagement and performance in flipped learning. European Journal of Training and Development, 46 (1/2), 22-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJTD-08-2020-0129

Rasheed, R. A., Kamsin, A., Abdullah, N. A., Kakudi, H. A., Ali, A. S., Musa, A. S., & Yahaya, A. S. (2020). Self-regulated learning in flipped classrooms: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 10 (11), 848-853. http://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2020.10.11.1469

Sandobal Verón, V. C., Marín, M. B., & Barrios, T. H. (2021). El aula invertida como estrategia didáctica para la generación de competencias: una revisión sistemática [The flipped classroom as a didactic strategy for the generation of competencies: a systematic review]. RIED-Revista Iberoamericana de Educación a Distancia, 24 (2), 285-308. https://doi. org/10.5944/ried.24.2.29027

Sein-Echaluce, M.L., Fidalgo-Blanco, Á., Balbín, A.M., & García-Peñalvo, J. G. (2022). Flipped Learning 4.0. An extended flipped classroom model with education 4.0 and organisational learning processes. Universal Access in the Information Society. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10209-022- 00945-0

Sointu, E., Hyypiä, M., Lambert, M. C., Hirsto, L., Saarelainen, M., & Valtonen, T. (2022). Preliminary evidence of key factors in successful flipping: predicting positive student experiences in flipped classrooms. Higher Education, (85), 503-520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-022-00848-2

Sosa, M. J., Guerra, J., & Cerezo, M. (2021). Flipped classroom in the context of higher education: Learning, satisfaction and interaction. Education Sciences, 11 (8), 416. http://dx. doi.org/10.3390/educsci11080416

Strelan, P., Osborn, A., & Palmer, E. (2020). Student satisfaction with courses and instructors in a flipped classroom: A meta-analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 36 (3), 295-314. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12421

Torres-Martín, C., Acal, C., El-Homrani, M., & Mingorance-Estrada, A. C. (2022). Implementation of the flipped classroom and its longitudinal impact on improving academic performance. Educational Technology Research and Development, 70, 909-929. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-022- 10095-y

Valenzuela, R., Codina, N., Castillo, I., & Pestana, J. V. (2020). Young university students’ academic self-regulation profiles and their associated procrastination: Autonomous functioning requires self-regulated operations. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 354. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00354

Vega-Martínez, A. (2022). Evolución de los patrones de aprendizaje en universitarios iberoamericanos: relaciones con la regulación, el estrés académico y el rendimiento [Evolution of learning patterns in Latin American university students: relationships with regulation, academic stress and performance] [Doctoral dissertation]. TDX (Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa).

Vega-Martínez, A., Martínez-Fernández, J. R., & Coiduras-Rodríguez, J. Ll. (2023). Patrones de aprendizaje, estrés académico y rendimiento en universitarios de primer curso: un estudio exploratorio [Learning patterns, academic stress and performance in first-year university students: An exploratory study]. Revista EDUCAR, 59 (1), 163-178. https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/educar.1527

Vermunt, J. D. (1998). The regulacion of construtive learning processes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68 (2), 149-171. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8279.1998. tb01281.x

Vermunt, J. D. (2020). Surveys and retrospective self-reports to measure strategies and strategic processing. In D. L. Dinsmore, L. K. Fryer, & M. M. Parkinson (Eds.), Handbook of strategies and strategic processing (pp. 259-274). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429423635-16

Vermunt, J. D., Bronkhorst, L. H., & Martínez-Fernández, J. R. (2014). The dimensionality of student learning patterns in different cultures. In D. Gibels, V. Donche, J. T. Richardson, & J. D. Vermunt (Eds.), Learning patterns in higher education: Dimensions and research perspectives (pp. 33-55). Routledge. Yang, J. S. M. (2021). Promoting student engagement and preparation in flipped learning’s pre-class activities: A systematic review. Journal of Higher Education Theory and Practice, 21 (5). https://doi.org/10.33423/jhetp.v21i5.4282

Zheng, X.-L., Kim, H.-S., Lai, W.-H., & Hwang, G.-J. (2020). Cognitive regulations in ICT-supported flipped classroom interactions: An activity theory perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51 (1), 103-130. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12763

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13-39). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012109890-2/50031-7

Author Biography

J. Reinaldo Martínez-Fernández. Associate Professor of Developmental Psychology and Education at the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Coordinator of the Psychology of Communication & Change doctoral programme. He studies learning patterns and university research training as leader of the PAFIU group. He has participated in more than ten research projects and various research contracts, and is author of more than sixty publications of international impact.


Ingrid Noguera Fructuoso. Pedagogue, master’s in University Teaching and doctorate in Educational Multimedia. Assistant professor in Theories of Education and Social Pedagogy at the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Her research interests are innovative teaching methodologies and teaching-learning in the digital society. She has an extensive research career and international profile. She currently leads the European FLeD: learning design for flexible education project.


Anna Ciraso-Calí. Pedagogue, master’s in Behavioural and Health Sciences Methodology and doctorate in Psychology of Communication and Change. Professor of Practice in Applied Pedagogy at the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Her field of research is analysis of learning processes in different educational and life contexts, with special emphasis on patterns of learning; continuous training, especially of teachers; and empowering young people.


Antonio Vega-Martínez. Professor of Practice at the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona in Basic, Developmental, and Educational Psychology. Doctorate in Psychology of Communication and Change and bachelor’s in Social Education. Master’s in Neuropsychology of Education from the Universidad Internacional de La Rioja. Member of the PAFIU research group. He researches learning patterns in higher education and university research training. He has participated in conferences and published in high-impact journals.




Palabras clave | Keywords

regulation strategies, flipped classroom, university students, satisfaction, self-regulation