There are few programmes for preventing ICT addiction, and even fewer that have been scientifically validated. Preventing ICT addiction is a key part of governments’ adolescent mental health policies. Clickeando is a school programme for universal prevention of ICT addiction in adolescents. It has been in use for fourteen years and was designed on the basis of the appropriate quality indexes for this type of programme. Since 2020, Clickeando has assessed its participants with the aim of linking the efforts of different preventive bodies and agents. This has enabled the present study to assess the programme’s impact on its target population. The main results indicate that the programme produces changes in ICT use, principally by reducing addictive use of mobile phones by girls and boys in secondary education. Likewise, there are important behaviours in the development of addictive patterns that we suggest should be the focus of future modifications to the workshop (such as time spent on social networks or on instant messaging systems), for they are crucial for the efficacy of the intervention. The effects of Covid-19 on young people’s mental health have highlighted the need for assessment protocols and preventive actions that foster healthy use of technology and that take into account age and the gender perspective in their implementation to maximise their efficacy.

Referencias | References

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM-5. American Psychiatric Publishing.

American Psychological Association. (2014). Guidelines for prevention in psychology. American Psychologist, 69 (3), 285-296. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034569

Anderson, M., & Jiang, J. (2018, 31 de mayo). Teens, social media and technology 2018. Pew Research Center. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/05/31/teens-social-media- technology-2018/

Andreassen, C. S., Billieux, J., Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., Demetrovics, Z., Mazzoni, E., & Pallesen, S. (2016). The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30 (2), 252-262. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000160

Bashir, H., & Bhat, S. A. (2017). Effects of social media on mental health: A review. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4 (3), 125-131. https://doi.org/10.25215/0403.134

Berrios, B., Pérez, B., Sánchez, F., & Pantoja, A. (2020). Análisis del programa educativo “Cubilete” para la prevención de adicciones a TIC en adolescentes. Caso específico de juegos de azar y apuestas online [analysis of the “Cubilete” educational program for the prevention of ICT addictions in adolescents. Specific case of gambling and online betting]. Revista Española de Orientación y Psicopedagogía (REOP), 31 (1), 26-42. https://doi.org/10.5944/reop.vol.31.num.1.2020.27289

Bhargava, R., & Seshadri, S. (2021). Screen use and behavioral addiction: Making the «porridge» healthy. Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry, 37 (3), 245-247. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijsp.ijsp_272_21

Cartanyà-Hueso, À., Lidón-Moyano, C., & Martínez-Sánchez, J. M. (2021). Tiempo y uso de pantallas en niños y adolescentes: revisión y comparación de las guías de cinco instituciones sanitarias [Time and use of screens in children and adolescents: a review and comparison of the guidelines of five health care institutions]. Boletín de Pediatría, 61 (257), 174-179. https://sccalp.org/uploads/bulletin_artcle/pdf_version/1639/BolPediatr 2021_61_174-179.pdf

Chóliz, M. (2010). Mobile phone addiction in adolescence: Evaluation and prevention of mobile addiction in teenagers. Lambert Academic Publishing.

Chóliz, M. (2017). Prevención de las adicciones tecnológicas en la adolescencia [Preventing technological addictions in adolescence]. Padres Y Maestros / Journal of Parents and Teachers, (369), 53-59. https://doi.org/10.14422/pym.i369.y2017.008

Clement, J. (2023, 14 November). Number of video gamers worldwide 2017-2027. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/748044/number-video-gamers-world/

Echeburúa, E., & De Corral, P. (2010). Adicción a las nuevas tecnologías y a las redes sociales en jóvenes: un nuevo reto [Addiction to new technologies and to online social networking in young people: A new challenge]. Adicciones, 22 (2), 91-95. https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.196

Espinel, S. P., & Leguizamón, M. C. (2022). Adicción a Internet en tiempos de COVID-19. Programa de prevención [Internet addiction in COVID-19 times. Prevention program]. Revista Virtual Universidad Católica del Norte, (67), 191-216. https://www.doi.org/10.35575/rvucn.n67a8

Gainsbury, S., & Blaszczynski, A. (2011). A systematic review of Internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions. Clinical Psychology Review, 31 (3), 490-498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.11.007

García-Couceiro, N., Gómez, P., Kim-Harris, S., Burkhart, G., Flórez-Menéndez, G., & Rial, A. (2021, 19 May). El modelo SBIRT como estrategia de prevención de las adicciones con y sin sustancia en adolescentes [SBIRT model as a prevention strategy against addiction with and without substance in teenagers]. Revista Española de Salud Pública, (95), e202105065. https://www.sanidad.gob.es/biblioPublic/publicaciones/recursos_propios/resp/ revista_cdrom/VOL95/C_ESPECIALES/RS95C_202105065.pdf

Gentry, J. H., & Campbell, M. (2002). Developing adolescents: A reference for professionals. American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/pi/families/resources/develop.pdf

Griffiths, M. (1995). Technological addictions. Clinical Psychology Forum, (76), 14-19. https://doi.org/10.53841/bpscpf.1995.1.76.14

Kaess, M., Parzer, P., Brunner, R., Koenig, J., Durkee, T., Carli, V., Wasserman, D., Hoven, C. W., Sarchiapone, M., Bobes, J., Cosman, D., Värnik, A.Resch, F., & Wasserman, D. (2016). Pathological internet use is on the rise among European adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 59 (2), 236-239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.04.009

Killian, M. O., Cimino, A. N., Weller, B. E., & Hyun Seo, C. (2019). A systematic review of latent variable mixture modeling research in social work journals. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work, 16 (2), 192-210. https://doi.org/10.1080/23761407.2019.1577783

King, D. L., Delfabbro, P. H., Doh, Y. Y., Wu, A. M., Kuss, D. J., Pallesen, S., Mentzoni, R., Carragher, N., & Sakuma, H. (2018). Policy and prevention approaches for disordered and hazardous gaming and Internet use: An international perspective. Prevention Science, 19 (2), 233-249. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-017-0813-1

Kline, R. B. (2010). Promise and pitfalls of structural equation modeling in gifted research [Promesas y obstáculos en el modelo de ecuaciones estructurales en superdotados]. In B. Thompson, & R. F. Subotnik (Eds.), Methodologies for conducting research on giftedness (pp. 147-169). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/12079-007

Kuss, D. J., Van Rooij, A. J., Shorter, G. W., Griffiths, M. D., & Van de Mheen, D. (2013). Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29 (5), 1987-1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.04.002

Kuss, D. J., Shorter, G. W., Van Rooij, A. J., Van de Mheen, D., & Griffiths, M. D. (2014). The Internet addiction components model and personality: Establishing construct validity via a nomological network. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 312-321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.07.031

Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social networking sites and addiction: Ten lessons learned. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14 (3), 311. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030311

Luján-Barrera, A., & Denís, M. (2022). Adicción al móvil e impulsividad: ¿cuánto tardas en responder un mensaje de WhatsApp? [Mobile addiction and impulsivity: How long does it take to answer a WhatsApp message?]. Informació psicològica, (123), 24-38. https://doi.org/10.14635/IPSIC.1924

Ma, H. K., Chu, M. K., & Chan, W. W. (2011). Construction of a teaching package on promoting prosocial internet use and preventing antisocial internet use. The Scientific World Journal, 11, 2136-2146. https://doi.org/10.1100/2011/672898

Marcos, M., & Chóliz, M. (2021). TecnoTest: desarrollo de una herramienta de screening de adicciones tecnológicas y juego [Tecnotest: A screening tool for technological addictions and gambling disorder]. Adicciones, 35 (3), 235-248. https://doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1380

Masaeli, N., & Farhadi, H. (2021). Prevalence of internet-based addictive behaviors during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 39 (4), 468-488. https://doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2021.1895962

Mora, F., Dolengevich, H., & Quintero, J. (2015). Protocolo de tratamiento de las adicciones sin sustancia psicoactiva [Treatment protocol for addictions without psychoactive substances]. Medicine - Programa de Formación Médica Continuada Acreditado, 11 (86), 5157-5160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.med.2015.09.006

Naskar, S., Victor, R., Nath, K., & Sengupta, C. (2016). “One level more:” A narrative review on internet gaming disorder. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 25 (2), 145-154. https://doi.org/10.4103/ipj.ipj_67_16

Observatorio Español de las Drogas y las Adicciones. (2022). Informe sobre trastornos comportamentales 2022: juego con dinero, uso de videojuegos y uso compulsivo de internet en las encuestas de drogas y otras adicciones en España EDADES y ESTUDES [Behavioural disorders report 2022: Gambling, video game use and compulsive internet use in surveys on drugs and other addictions in Spain EDADES and ESTUDES]. Ministerio de Sanidad. Delegación del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas. https://pnsd.sanidad.gob.es/profesionales/sistemasInformacion/sistemaInformacion/pdf/2022_Informe_Trastornos_Comportamentales.pdf

Petrosyan, A. (2023, 25 de octubre). Worldwide digital population 2023. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/617136/digital-population-worldwide/

Prats, M. Ángel, Torres-Rodríguez, A., Oberst, U., & Carbonell, X. (2018). Diseño y aplicación de talleres educativos para el uso saludable de internet y redes sociales en la adolescencia: descripción de un estudio piloto [Design and application of educational workshops for the healthy use of the internet and online social networks in adolescents: Description of a pilot study]. Pixel-Bit. Revista de Medios y Educación, (52), 111-124. https://doi.org/10.12795/pixelbit.2018.i52.08

Romano, J. L., & Hage, S. M. (2000). Prevention: A call to action. The Counseling Psychologist, 28 (6), 854-856. https://doi.org/10.1177/001100000028600

Sánchez, L., Benito, R., Serrano, A., Benavent, R. A., & Bueno, F. J. (2018). Programa de prevención del uso problemático de internet y redes sociales. “Clickeando” [Programme for the prevention of problematic use of the internet and social networks. “Clickeando”]. Unidad de Prevención Comunitaria en Conductas Adictivas (UPCCA-València); Plan Municipal de Drogodependencias y Otros Trastornos Adictivos (PMD); Concejalía de Sanidad, Salud y Deportes. Ayuntamiento de Valencia.

Soto, A., De Miguel, N., & Pérez-Díaz, V. (2018). Abordaje de adicciones a nuevas tecnologías: una propuesta de prevención en contexto escolar y tratamiento de rehabilitación [An approach to addiction to new technologies: a proposal for prevention in the school environment and rehabilitation treatment]. Papeles del Psicólogo, 39 (2), 120-126. https://doi.org/10.23923/pap.psicol2018.2867

Stevens, J. P. (2002). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (4th ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2001-18534-000

Sussman, S., Lisha, N., & Griffiths, M. (2011). Prevalence of the addictions: a problem of the majority or the minority? Evaluation & the Health Professions, 34 (1), 3–56. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163278710380124

Taylor, P. (2023). Forecast number of mobile users worldwide 2020-2015. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/218984/number-of-global-mobile-users-since-2010/

Throuvala, M. A., Griffiths, M. D., Rennoldson, M., & Kuss, D. J. (2019). School-based prevention for adolescent internet addiction: Prevention is the key. A systematic literature review. Current Neuropharmacology, 17 (6), 507-525. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X16666180813153806

Van de Schoot, R., Lugtig, P., & Hox, J. (2012). A checklist for testing measurement invariance. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9 (4), 486-492. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2012.686740

Van den Eijnden, R. J., Lemmens, J. S., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The social media disorder scale. Computers in human behavior, 61, 478-487. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.038

Yudes, C., Rey Peña, L., & Extremera Pacheco, N. (2019). Ciberagresión, adicción a internet e inteligencia emocional en adolescentes: un análisis de diferencias de género [Cyberbullying, internet addiction and emotional intelligence in adolescents: A gender difference analysis]. Voces de la Educación, (2) 27-44. https://www.revista.vocesdelaeducacion.com.mx/index.php/voces/article/view/210

Zhao, H., Li, X., Zhou, J., Nie, Q., & Zhou, J. (2020). The relationship between bullying victimization and online game addiction among Chinese early adolescents: The potential role of meaning in life and gender differences. Children and Youth Services Review, 116, 105261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105261

Author Biography

Amparo Luján-Barrera. Graduate in Psychology and master’s degree in Neurosciences from the Universidad de Valencia (UV). She is currently studying for a doctorate in Research in Psychology and is a member of the Gambling and Technological Addictions research team of the Department of Basic Psychology at the UV, where she works as a researcher. She has been a behavioural addictions prevention specialist since 2020 in collaboration with the Plan Municipal de Drogodependencias of the Council of Valencia. She has taken many training courses in languages, research, and teaching. To date, she has published two articles, a book review, and two conference proceedings of the Dykinson publishing house. She carries out scientific dissemination activities, and delivers training courses in prevention workshops and other university courses.


Lydia Cervera-Ortiz. Licentiate degree in Psychology from the Universidad de Valencia (UV); university master’s in ESO and Baccalaureate Teacher Training, Professional Training and Language Teaching from the Universidad Miguel Hernández in Elche; and a master’s in Gambling Addiction and Other Behavioural Addictions. She is currently a predoctoral researcher working on her doctorate in Research in Psychology at the UV. She is also a member of the Gambling and Technological Addictions research team in the Basic Psychology Department. She has also been a behavioural addictions prevention specialist since 2021 in collaboration with the Plan Municipal de Drogodependencias of the Council of Valencia. She is the author of various articles, book chapters, and reviews published in journals, conference proceedings, and monographs. She has delivered various specialist courses on technology addiction prevention programmes (Ludens, Gamer) for the addictions services of Cantabria and the Balearics.


Mariano Chóliz-Montañés. Professor of the Universidad de Valencia. He is the head of the Gambling Addiction and other Behavioural Addictions postgraduate specialist course and the Preventing Technology Addictions and Online Bullying online postgraduate course. He is also head of the Gambling and Technological Addictions research unit.

He specialises in behavioural addictions and emotional expression and has directed various research projects on technology addictions in adolescence. He is a member of various Spanish and international scientific associations and has written the books Adicción a Internet y redes sociales: tratamiento psicológico [Internet and social-media addiction: psychological treatment], Adicción al juego de azar [Gambling addiction], and Mobile phone dependence in adolescence, among others. He has published academic articles on gambling addiction and technological addictions in journals such as Addiction, Journal of Gambling Studies, Psychological Reports, Anales de Psicología, Revista Española de Drogodependencias, and others.


Included in

Education Commons



Palabras clave | Keywords

addiction, technology, ICT, mobile phones, social networks, video games, school-based prevention, prevention programme, mental health, efficacy, validation, adolescence, Covid-19, factor analysis