Professional music education is still an emerging educational sector in some countries, as in Colombia. Within this sector, there are new, interesting initiatives that provide musical training for non-institutionalised professional groups, who would not otherwise be able to obtain academically valid credentials, given their geographic dispersion and employment situation in the country. In this sense, an analytical study associated with this area has been conducted to explore the general functioning and achievements in musical training of the Colombia Creativa Artists’ Professionalisation Programme (PPACC - Programa de Profesionalización de Artistas Colombia Creativa), identifying weaknesses, strengths and opportunities for improvement. This programme is sponsored by the Ministry of Culture of Colombia and is one of the main ways for professional musicians who could not be trained in official centres to achieve certification of their competencies with academic validity in this country, providing them with clearly improved employability within the field of musical training. For this research, a qualitative methodology was used, by means of interviews and an emergent content analysis was conducted with the NVivo program. Among the main results, of note are the organisational difficulties encountered and the tensions and rejection of the programme by some participants. Also strengths such as the flexibility of the programme and the opportunity it provides for national musical training of groups of artists who are not institutionally professionalised.

Referencias | References

Abramo, L, Cecchini, S., y Morales, B. (2019). Programas sociales, super- ación de la pobreza e inclusión laboral: aprendizajes desde América Latina y el Caribe [Social programmes, overcoming poverty and labour inclusion: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean]. Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).

Andersson, P., & Fejes, A. (2005). Recognition of prior learning as a technique for fabricating the adult learner: A genealogical analysis on Swedish adult education policy. Journal of Education Policy, 20 (5), 595-613. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930500222436

Anguera, M. (2008). Evaluación de programas desde la metodología cualitativa [Program evaluation from qualitative methodology]. Acción Psicológica, 5 (2), 87-101. http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/view/bibliuned:AccionPsicologica2008-2-0005

Arenas, E. (2011, 13-16 de julio). Utopías de la educación musical en Colombia: dilemas y conflictos de representaciones [Utopias of music education in Colombia: Dilemmas and conflicts of representations] [ponencia]. VI Congreso Nacional de Música, Medellín, Colombia.

Aróstegui, J., & Kyakuwa, J. (2021). Generalist or specialist music teachers? Lessons from two continents. Arts Education Policy Review, 122 (1), 19-31. 10.1080/10632913.2020.1746715

Barbero, M.ª I., Vila, E., & Falcón, J. C. (2003). Psicometría [Psychometry]. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia.

Bauselas, E. (2004). Una herramienta al servicio de perfeccionamiento docente: Nudist Vivo [A tool at the service of teacher training: Nudist Vivo]. Revista de Informática Educativa y Medios Audiovisuales, 1 (3), 21-27.

Bazeley, P. (2002). The evolution of a project involving an integrated analysis of structured qualitative and quantitative data: From N3 to NVivo. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 5 (3), 229-243. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645570210146285

Bovil, C., & Woolmer, C. (2018). How conceptualisations of curriculum in higher education influence student-staff co-creation in and of the curriculum. Higher Education, 78, 407-422. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10734-018-0349-8

Burnard P. (1991). A method of analysing interview transcripts in qualitative research. Nurse education today, 11 (6), 461-466. 10.1016/0260-6917(91)90009-y

Cabarcas, M., Barrios J., Lemus, J., & Vergara, L. (2018). Perspectivas interculturales en la escuela latinoamericana: empoderar el diálogo para superar la exclusión [Intercultural perspectives in the Latin American school: Empowering dialogue to overcome exclusión]. Polyphōnia. Revista de Educación Inclusiva, 2 (1), 100-117. https://www.aacademica.org/polyphnia.revista.de.educacion.inclusiva/25

Cárdenas, R. N., & Lorenzo, O. (2013a). Evaluación de programas de enseñanza musical superior en Colombia [Evaluation of higher music education programmes in Colombia]. En Y. Pedraza, & Ó. Pulido (Eds.), Congreso de Investigación y Pedagogía III Nacional II Internacional. La educación en el siglo XXI: ser, saber y producir en la incertidumbre y el caos [Congress of Research and Pedagogy III National II International. Education in the 21st century: Being, knowing and producing in uncertainty and chaos] (pp. 830-840). Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia.

Cárdenas, R. N., & Lorenzo, O. (2013b). Estudio sobre características profesionales de los docentes de licenciaturas en música en Colombia [Study about professional features of music education programs’ teachers in Colombia]. Educación XX1, 16 (2), 161-182. 10.5944/educxx1.2.16.10337

Cárdenas, R. N., Lorenzo, O., & Hargreaves, D. (2015). The training of music teachers in Colombia: A descriptive analysis. International Journal of Music Education, 33 (1), 3-17. https:// doi.org/10.1177/0255761413515807

Casas, M. (2015). Formación superior de educadores musicales: a propósito de los 20 años de la ley 115 de 1994 [Higher education for music educators: On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of Law 115 of 1994]. Ricercare, (4), 8-18. 10.17230/ ricercare.2015.4.1

Corrigall, K., & Trainor, L. (2011). Associations between length of music training and reading skills in children. Music Perception, 29 (2), 147-155. 10.1525/mp.2011.29.2.147

Cremades-Andreu, R., & García-Gil, D. (2017). Musical training of the degree in primary education in the context of Madrid. Revista Española de Pedagogía, 75 (268), 415-431.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Sage.

Cho, J. Y., & Lee, E. (2014). Reducing confusion about grounded theory and qualitative content analysis: Similarities and differences. The Qualitative Report, 19 (32), 1-20. https://doi. org/10.46743/2160-3715/2014.1028

Diamond, A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168. 10.1146/an- nurev-psych-113011-143750

Dias, J. (2007). Acreditación de la educación superior en América Latina y el Caribe. La educación superior en el mundo [Accreditation of higher education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Higher education in the world]. In B. C. Sanyal, & J. Tres (Eds.), La educación superior en el mundo 2007. Acreditación para la garantía de la calidad: ¿qué está en juego? [Higher education in the world, 2007. Accreditation for quality assurance: What is at stake?] (pp. 282-295). Mundi Prensa Libros. https://upcom- mons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2099/7538/18_282-295.pdf

Dias, J. (2014). Universidade e novos modos de produção, circulação e aplicação do conhecimento [University and news modes of production, circulation and application of knowledge]. Avaliação, Campinas; Sorocaba, SP, 19 (3), 643-662. https://periodi- cos.uniso.br/avaliacao/article/view/2055

Díaz, M. (2002). Flexibilidad y educación superior en Colombia [Flexibility and higher education in Colombia]. Instituto Colombiano Para el Fomento de la Educación Superior (ICFES). Díaz, C., & Bastías, C. (2012). Una aproximación a los patrones de comunicación entre el profesor mentor y el profesor-estudiante en el contexto de la práctica pedagógica [An approach to communication patterns between teachers and student-teachers in the context of pedagogical practice]. Educación XX1, 15 (1), 241-263. 10.5944/educxx1.15.1.158

Drisko, J. (2008). How is qualitative research taught at the master’s level? Journal of Social Work Education, 44 (1), 85-101. 10.5175/JSWE.2008.200500537

Fernández, N. (2004). Hacia la convergencia de los sistemas de educación superior en América Latina [Towards the convergence of Latin American higher education systems]. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 35, 39-71.

Fernie, S., Pilcher, N., & Smith, K. (2013). The Scottish credit and qualifications framework: What’s academic practice got to do with it? European Journal of Education, 49 (2), 233-248. 10.1111/ejed.12056

Folkestad, G. (2006). Formal and informal learning situations or practices vs formal and informal ways of learning. British Journal of Music Education, 23 (12), 135-145. https://doi. org/10.1017/S0265051706006887

Gerbic, P. (2011). Teaching using a blended approach - what does the literature tell us? Media International, 48 (3), 221-234. 10.1080/09523987.2011.615159

Giraldo, U., Abad, D., & Díaz, E. (s. f.). Bases para una política de calidad de la educación superior en Colombia [Bases for a quality policy for higher education in Colombia]. Recuperado el 14 de enero de 2024 de https://www.mineducacion.gov.co/ CNA/1741/articles-186502_doc_academico10.pdf

Gómez, V., & Celis, J. (2009). Crédito educativo, acciones afirmativas y equidad social en la educación superior en Colombia [Student loans, affirmative action, and social equity in Colombian higher education]. Revista de Estudios Sociales, 1 (33), 106–117. 10.7440/res33.2009.09

Green, L. (2002). How popular musicians learn. A way ahead for music education. Routledge.

Green, L. (2008). Music, informal learning and the school: A new classroom pedagogy. Aldershot.

Guhn, M., Emerson, S. D., & Gouzouasis, P. (2020). A population-level analysis of associations between school music participation and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112 (2), 308-328. 10.1037/edu0000376

Guzmán-Valenzuela, C. (2017). Tendencias globales en educación superior y su impacto en América Latina: desafíos pendientes [Global trends in higher education and their impact on Latin America: Pending challenges]. Lenguas Modernas, (50), 15-32.

Herrera, M., e Infante, R. (2003). Las políticas públicas y su impacto en el sistema educativo colombiano. Una mirada desde los planes de desarrollo 1970-2002 [Public policies and their impact on the Colombian educational system. A look from the 1970-2002 development plans]. Nómadas, (20), 76-85.

Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15 (9), 1277-1288. 10.1177/1049732305276687

Hyland, K. (2013). Writing in the university: Education, knowledge and reputation. Language teaching, 46 (1), 53-70. https:// doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000036

Jonker, H., März, V., & Voogt, J. (2020). Curriculum flexibility in a blended curriculum. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 36 (1), 68-84. https://ajet.org.au/index.php/AJET/ issue/view/137

Kashif, M., & Cheewakrakokbit, P. (2017). Perceived service quality-loyalty path: A PAKSERV based investigation of international students enrolled in business schools in Thailand.. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 28 (1), 51-65. https:// doi.org/10.1080/08841241.2017.1402113

Langa, D., & David, E. (2006). A massive university or a university for the masses? Continuity and change in higher education in Spain and England. Journal of Education Policy, 21 (3), 343-

365. 10.1080/02680930600600630

Lee, K.-H., Na, G., Song, C.-G., & Jung, H.-Y. (2020). How does pedagogical flexibility in curriculum use promote mathematical flexibility? An exploratory case study. Mathematics, 8 (11), 1987. 10.3390/math8111987

López-León, R., Lorenzo-Quiles, O., & Addessi, A. R. (2015). Music education in Puerto Rican elementary schools: A study from the perspective of music teachers. International Journal of Music Education, 33 (2), 146-162. https://doi. org/10.1177/0255761413515811

Lorenzo, O. (2011). Análisis cualitativo de textos sobre multi e interculturalidad [Qualitative analysis of texts about multiand interculturality]. DEDiCA Revista De Educação E Humanidades (dreh), (1), 535–546. 10.30827/dreh.


Lorenzo, O., Cárdenas, R. N., Soares-Quadros, J. F., & Ortiz-Marcos, J. M. (2023). Curriculum and training analysis of the music degrees in Colombia. International Journal of Music Education. 10.1177/02557614231152310

Lorenzo, O., & Turcu, I. R. (2023). Higher music education in Romania in the context of the European Higher Education Area: An analysis from the lecturer’s perspective. Music Education Research, 25 (2), 147-159. 10.1080/14613808.2023.2183493

Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative content analysis. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1 (2). 10.17169/fqs-1.2.1089

McAleavy, G., & O’Hagan, C. (2003). Deepening participation and progression through the recognition of vocational learning. Journal of Widening Participation and Access, 5 (2), 30-53.

Melnic, A., & Botez, N. (2014). Formal, non-formal and informal interdependence in education. Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition, 17 (1), 113-118.

Melo-Becerra, L., Ramos-Forero, J., & Hernández-Santamaría, P. (2017). Higher education in Colombia: Current situation and efficiency analysis. Revista Desarrollo y Sociedad, (78), 59-111. 10.13043/DYS.78.2

Ministerio de Cultura de Colombia. (2015). Encuentro Nacional de Colombia Creativa [National Meeting of Colombia Creativa]. Ministerio de Cultura de Colombia. https://www.mincultura. gov.co/areas/artes/educacion-artistica/colombia-creativa/Docu- ments/Memorias%202015%20Colombia%20Creativa%205%20 y%206%20noviembre%202015.pdf

Ministerio de Cultura de Colombia, & ACOFARTES (2010). Sistematización de la experiencia del proyecto Colombia Creativa. Memoria (fase I) [Systematisation of the experience of the Colombia Creativa project. Report (stage I)]. Ministerio de Cultura de Colombia.

Ministerio de Cultura de Colombia, & ACOFARTES. (2011). Informe final: fase II. Sistematización de la experiencia del proyecto Colombia Creativa [Final report: stage II. Systematisation of the experience of the Colombia Creativa project]. Ministerio de Cultura de Colombia.

MEN (Colombian Ministry of Education). (2014). Educación superior en Colombia [Higher education in Colombia). https://www. mineducacion.gov.co/portal/Educacion-superior/

Ñáñez-Rodríguez, J. J., & Castro-Turriago, H. M. (2016). Educación artística y formación ciudadana: espacio para forjar la sensibilidad en la Corporación Colegio San Bonifacio, de Ibagué, Colombia [Arts education and citizenship training: a space for forging sensitivity in the San Bonifacio School Corporation, Ibagué, Colombia]. Entramado, 12 (2), 154-165. https:// doi.org/10.18041/1900-3803/entramado.2.441

Quintana, A. (2006). Metodología de investigación científica [Scientific research methodology]. In A. Quintana, & W. Montgomery (Coords.), Psicología: tópicos de actualidad [Psychology: current topics] (pp. 47-84). Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Rodríguez, M. (2015,October 5-9). Educación musical en Colombia: entre el impulso a debilitar y el impulso a ampliar [Music education in Colombia: Between the impulse to weaken and the impulse to expand]. XXII Congresso Nacional da ABE, Natal, Brasil.

Rodríguez, M. (2016, August 4-7). Tensiones de la educación musical escolar en Colombia [Tensions in Colombian school music education] [conferencia]. X Conferencia Regional Latinoamericana y III Conferencia Regional Panamericana de Educación Musical de la ISME Sociedad Internacional de Educación Musical. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Lima, Lima, Perú.

Romeu-Fontanillas, T., Guitert, M., Raffaghelli, J. -E., & Sangrà, A. (2020). Ecologías de aprendizaje para usar las TIC inspirándose en docentes referentes [Mirroring learning ecologies of outstanding teachers to integrate ICTs in the classroom]. Comunicar, (62), 31-42. 10.3916/c62-2020-03

Sala, G., & Gobet, F. (2017). When the music’s over. Does music transfer to children’s and young adolescents’ cognitive and academic skills? A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 20, 55-67. 10.1016/j.edurev.2016.11.005

Sánchez-Escribano, E., Gertrudix, F., & Bautista, A. (2022). Analyzing instrumental music education models: A four-dimension tool. Arts Education Policy Review. 10.1080/106 32913.2022.2041139

Sangrá,A.,Raffaghelli,J.,González-Sanmamed,M.,&Muñoz-Carril, P. (2021). Desarrollo profesional de maestros de primaria desde la óptica de las ecologías de aprendizaje: nuevas formas de actualizarse en tiempos inciertos [Primary school teachers’ professional development through the learning ecologies lens: New ways for keeping up to date in uncertain times]. Publicaciones, 51 (3), 21-45. 10.30827/publicaciones. v51i3.20790

Santaella, C. (2016). Estrategias para resistir a la crisis de confianza en la investigación cualitativa actual [Strategies to resist the current confidence crisis in qualitative research]. Educación XX1, 19 (1), 159-177. 10.5944/educxx1.15582

Souto-Seijo, A., Estévez, I., & Sande, O. (2021). Opportunities for teacher training: An approach from the learning ecologies. Educatio Siglo XXI, 39 (2), 61-79. 10.6018/ educatio.463211

Stanton, B. (2018). Musicking in the borders: Toward decolonizing methodologies. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 26 (1), 4-23. 10.2979/philmusieducrevi.26.1.02

Taylor, R., Yeboah, A. K., & Ringlaben, R. P. (2015). Pre-service teachers’ perceptions towards multicultural education and teaching of culturally and linguistically diverse learners. International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, 3 (9), 75-87. 10.31686/ijier.vol3.iss9.434

Tejada, J., & Thayer, J. (2019). Design and validation of a music technology course for initial music teacher education based on the TPACK model and the project-based learning approach. Journal of Music, Technology, and Education, 12 (3), 225-246. 10.1386/jmte_00008_1

Tucker, R., & Morris, G. (2011). Anytime, anywhere, anyplace: Articulating the meaning of flexible delivery in built environment education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42 (6), 904-915. 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01138.x

Wang, F., & Lorenzo, O. (2018). Sociedad y educación musical en educación primaria en China [Society and musical education in primary education in China]. Publicaciones, 48 (2), 359-399. 10.30827/publicaciones.v48i2.8350

Zapata, G., & Niño, S. (2018). Diversidad cultural como reto a la educación musical en Colombia: problemas relacionales entre culturas musicales, formación e investigación de la música [Cultural diversity as a challenge to music education in Colombia: Inter-relational issues in musical cultures, education and research]. Cuadernos de Música, Artes Visuales y Artes Escénicas, 13 (2), 227-236. https://revistas.javeriana.edu.co/index.php/cma/article/view/9_ZapataNi%C3%83%C2%B1o

Zwiers, M., & Morrissette, P. J. (1999). Effective interviewing of children: A comprehensive guide for counselors and human service workers. Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203768303

Author Biography

Oswaldo LORENZO-QUILES. Special Doctoral Prize in Education Studies (UNED). Third prize at national level in educational research (Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia de España - Spanish Ministry of Education and Science). Associate professor and vicedean of Research, International Projects and Transfer at the Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación y del Deporte de Melilla (Faculty of Education Studies and Sport in Melilla) (Universidad de Granada). General coordinator of the ECALFOR project (Evaluación de la formación del profesorado en América Latina y Caribe. Garantía de la calidad de los títulos de educación / Evaluation of teacher training in Latin America and the Caribbean. Guarantee of the quality of education degrees), European Capacity building project. His main lines of research are higher education, music education and monitoring education graduates.


Yuly Rodríguez-Ramírez. Doctor of Education at the Universidad de Granada. Research fellow at the Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal (Department of Didactics of Musical, Plastic and Bodily Expression) at the Universidad de Granada. Her main line of research focuses on music education.


Ana Lendínez-Turón. Graduate of the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos. Master’s Degree in Multicultural Studies from the Universidad de Granada. Currently preparing her doctoral thesis on education for the Universidad de Granada. International projects expert at the Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación y del Deporte de Melilla (Faculty of Education Studies and Sport in Melilla) (Universidad de Granada). Her main lines of research focus on higher education, education and information and communication technologies, and monitoring education graduates.


Licencia Creative Commons | Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial 4.0.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



Palabras clave | Keywords

music education, Colombia, professionalisation of artists, management of educational programmes, employability of music educators