•  
  •  
 

DOI

10.22550/2174-0909.3935

Abstract

The importance of attending to the emotional development of students is increasingly present in the educational field, especially in secondary education. At this stage, adolescents experience a variety of changes and needs that require training and emotional support. However, in order to be able to apply effective educational programmes that promote emotional development, it is essential to know the level of emotional competence of students, and for this purpose, assessment instruments are needed that can appropriately assess this competence. This paper presents the validation of the Emotional Development Questionnaire for Secondary School Students (CDE-SEC). A sample of 1296 students from the first to the fourth year of Compulsory Secondary Education from different schools in Spain was used, although partial samples were used for specific analyses. Several studies have been carried out to demonstrate the internal consistency and validity of the instrument: the calculation of the reliability coefficient, confirmatory factor analysis, and the correlation of the CDE-SEC with recognised measures of emotional intelligence, personality, adjustment difficulties, social behaviour, and self-esteem. In addition, incremental validity was studied by means of a regression study. The results indicate that the CDE-SEC is a theoretically well-founded questionnaire with good psychometric characteristics. In short, it is considered an optimal tool for assessing the emotional competence of secondary school students and evaluating the effectiveness of educational programmes to promote personal, emotional and social development.

Referencias | References

Álvarez-González, M. (2017). Hacia un modelo integrador de la tutoría en los diferentes niveles educativos [Towards an integrative tutoring model across different educational levels]. Revista Educatio Siglo XXI, 35 (2), 21-42. https://doi.org/10.6018/j/298501

Álvarez-González, M., & Álvarez-Justel, J. (2015). Relación de programas de educación emocional [List of emotional education programmes]. En M. Álvarez-González, & R. Bisquerra (Coords.), Manual de orientación y tutoría [Guidance and mentoring manual]. Wolters Kluwer Educación.

Álvarez-Justel, J. (2021). Construcción y validación inicial de la escala de toma de decisiones de la carrera en secundaria (ETDC-S) [Initial development and validation of the secondary-school academic and career decision-making scale]. Electronic Journal Research in Educational Psychology, 19 (3), 605-624. https://doi.org/10.25115/ejrep.v19i55.4322

Álvarez-Justel, J., & Álvarez-González, M. (2022). Tutoría y orientación en secundaria. Recursos para la intervención [Tutoring and guidance in secondary education. Resources for intervention]. Pirámide.

Amutio, A., López-González, L., Oriol, X., & Pérez-Escoda, N. (2020). Predicción del rendimiento académico a través de la práctica de relajación-meditación-mindfulness y el desarrollo de competencias emocionales [Predicting academic performance through relaxation-meditation-mindfulness and emotional competences]. Universitas Psychologica, 19. https://revistas.javeriana.edu.co/index.php/revPsycho/article/view/28395

Anto, S. P., & Jayan, C. (2016). Self-esteem and emotion regulation as determinants of mental health of youth. Journal of Projective Psychology & Mental Health, 23 (1), 34-40.

Barbaranelli, C., Carpara, G., Rabasca, A., & Pastorelli, C. (2003). A questionnaire for measuring the big five in late childhood. Personality and Individual Differences, 34 (4), 645-664. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00051-X

Bisquerra, R., & Pérez-Escoda, N. (2007). Las competencias emocionales [Emotional competencies]. Educación XXI, (10), 61-82. Bleidorn, W., Arslan, R. C., Denissen, J. J. A., Rentfrow, P. J., Gebauer, J. E., Potter, J., & Gosling, S. D. (2016). Age and gender differences in self-esteem: A cross-cultural window. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111 (3), 396-410. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000078

Cejudo, M. J. (2015). Diseño, desarrollo y evaluación del programa «Dulcinea» de educación emocional en un centro de educación secundaria desde la integración de modelos de inteligencia emocional [Design, development and evaluation of the “Dulcinea” emotional education programme in a secondary school based on the integration of emotional intelligence models] [Doctoral dissertation]. E-spacio: repositorio institucional de la Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/view/tesisuned:Educacion-Jcejudo

Cheung, C. K., Cheung, H. Y., & Hue, M. T. (2015). Emotional intelligence as a basis for self-esteem in young adults. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 149 (1), 63-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2013.838540

Del Barrio, V., Carrasco, M. A., & Holgado, F. P. (2006). BFQ-NA. Cuestionario «big five» de personalidad para niños y adolescentes [BFQ-NA. Big five personality questionnaire for children and adolescents]. TEA Ediciones.

Di Riso, D., Salcuni, S., Chessa, D., Raudino, A., Lis, A., & Altoè, G. (2010). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Early evidence of its reliability and validity in a community sample of Italian children. Personality and Individual Differences, 49 (6), 570-575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.005

Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., & Pachan, M. (2010). A meta-analysis of after-school programs that seek to promote personal and social skills in children and adolescents. American journal of community psychology, 45 (3-4), 294-309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9300-6

Eusebio, P. (2021). Educación emocional, una mirada hacia el presente en educación integral [Emotional education, a look at the present in comprehensive education]. Editorial Inclusión.

Ferrándiz, C., Hernando, D., Bermejo, R., Ferrando, M., & Sáinz, M. (2012). La inteligencia emocional y social en la niñez y adolescencia: validación castellana de un instrumento para su medida [Social and emotional intelligence in childhood and adolescence: Spanish validation of a measurement instrument]. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 17 (2), 309-339. http://hdl.handle.net/10810/48272

Ferrer-Esteban, G. (2023). Orientació educativa: envers un model d’orientació integrat per prevenir l’abandonament escolar [Educational guidance: Towards an integrated guidance model to prevent school dropouts]. Fundació Bofill.

Fiske, D. W. (1949). Consistency of the factorial structures of personality ratings from different sources. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 44 (3), 329-344. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0057198

García, P., Goodman, R., Mazaira, J., Torres, A., Rodríguez-Sacristán, J., Hervas, A., & Fuentes, J. (2000). El cuestionario de capacidades y dificultades [The strengths and difficulties questionnaire]. Revista de Psiquiatría Infanto-Juvenil, (1), 12-17. https://aepnya.eu/index.php/revistaaepnya/article/view/443

García, E., & Gómez-Baya, D. (2022). El papel mediador de la inteligencia emocional y la autoestima en las diferencias de género en síntomas depresivos en una muestra de adolescentes [The mediational role of emotional intelligence and self-esteem in gender differences in depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescents]. Análisis y Modificación de Conducta, 48 (178), 27-40. https://doi.org/10.33776/amc.v48i178.7344

Garaigordobil, M., Machimbarrena, J., & Maganto, C. (2016). Adaptación española de un instrumento para evaluar la resolución de conflictos (Conflictalk): Datos psicométricos de fiabilidad y validez [Spanish adaptation of an instrument to assess conflict resolution (Conflictalk): Psychometric data of reliability and validity]. Revista de Psicología Clínica con Niños y Adolescentes, 3 (2), 59-67. https://www.revistapcna.com/sites/default/files/16-23.pdf

Gardner, A. A., & Lambert, C. A. (2019). Examining the interplay of self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, and age with depression across adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 71 (2), 162-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.022

Gómez-Baya, D., Mendoza, R., Paino, S. y Gaspar, M. (2017). Perceived emotional intelligence as a predictor of depressive symptoms during mid-adolescence: A two-year longitudinal study on gender differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 303-312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.022

González, A., & Molero, M. M. (2022). Creatividad, habilidades sociales y comportamiento prosocial en adolescentes: diferencias según sexo [Creativity, social skills and prosocial behaviour in adolescents: Differences according to sex]. Publicaciones, 52 (2), 117-144. https://doi.org/10.30827/publicaciones. v52i2.26184

González-Yubero, S., Lázaro-Visa, S., & Palomera, R. (2021). ¿Qué aporta la inteligencia emocional al estudio de los factores personales protectores del consumo de alcohol en la adolescencia? [How does emotional intelligence contribute to the study of personal protective factors for alcohol consumption in adolescence?]. Psicología Educativa, 27 (1), 27-36. https://doi.org/10.5093/psed2020a13

Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38 (5), 581-586. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x

Hernández-Serrano, O., Espada, J. P., & Guillén-Riquelme, A. (2016). Relación entre conducta prosocial, resolución de problemas y consumo de drogas en adolescentes [Relationship of the prosocial behaviour, the problem-solving skills and the use of drugs amongst adolescents]. Anales de Psicología, 32 (2), 609-616. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.32.2.204941

Kersten, P., Czuba, K., McPherson, K., Dudley, M., Elder, H., Tauroa, R., & Vandal, A. A. (2015). A systematic review of evidence for the psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 40 (1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025415570647

Martín-Albo, J., Núñez, J. L., Navarro, J. G., & Grijalvo, F. (2007). The Rosenberg self-esteem scale: Translation and validation in university students. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10 (2), 458-467. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1138741600006727

McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52 (1), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.1.81

Merino, C., Flores, P., & Mora, J. C. (2023). La inteligencia emocional y la incidencia en la conducta de la persona [Emotional intelligence and its impact on the person’s behavior]. Domino de las Ciencias, 9 (1), 289-310. https://dominiodelasciencias.com/ojs/index.php/es/article/view/3136

Mestres, L. (2022). Educar emocionalmente en un mundo hiperconectado e hipertecnológico [Emotionally educating in a hyper-connected and hyper-technological world]. In N. Pérez-Escoda, & E. López-Cassà (Eds.), Retos para el bienestar social y emocional [Challenges to social and emotional well-being] (pp. 149-174). Wolters Kluwer.

Midgett, A., Doumas, D., & Johnston, A. (2017). Establishing school counselors as leaders in bullying curriculum delivery: Evaluation of a brief, school-wide bystander intervention. Professional School Counseling, 21 (1). https://doi.org/10.1177/2156759X18778781

Molina, S., Inda, M., & Fernández C. M. (2014). La personalidad como predictora de dificultades cotidianas en la adolescencia [Personality features as predictors of different problems in adolescence]. Revista Española de Orientación y Psicopedagogía, 20 (2), 109-122. https://doi.org/10.5944/reop.vol.20. num.2.2009.11444

Montes-Solís, F., Rodríguez, L., Guzmán, F. R., & López, K. S. (2023). Autoestima, autoeficacia, conducta prosocial y el consumo de alcohol en adolescentes escolarizados [Self-esteem, self-efficacy, prosocial behavior and alcohol consumption in school adolescents]. Health and Addictions/Salud y Drogas, 23 (1), 368-381. https://doi.org/10.21134/haaj.v23i1.799

Orozco, M. G. (2021). Inteligencia emocional, empatía y buen trato como factores protectores frente a la agresión física en adolescentes [Emotional intelligence, empathy and warmth as protective factors against physical aggression in adolescents]. Revista CES Psicología, 14 (2), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.21615/cesp.5222

Orth, U., Erol, R. Y., & Luciano, E. C. (2018). Development of self-esteem from age 4 to 94 years: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 144 (10), 1045-1080. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000161

Parodi, A., Belmonte, V., Ferrándiz, C., & Ruiz, M. J. (2017). La relación entre la inteligencia emocional y la personalidad en estudiantes de educación secundaria [The relationship between emotional intelligence and personality in secondary education students]. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 2 (1), 137-143. https://doi.org/10.17060/ijodaep.2017.n1.v2.926

Peña-Casares, M. J., & Aguaded-Ramírez, E. M. (2019). Evaluación de la inteligencia emocional en el alumnado de educación primaria y educación secundaria [Emotional intelligence assessment in primary and secondary education students]. Revista de Educación de la Universidad de Granada, 26, 53-68. https://doi.org/10.30827/reugra.v26i0.118

Pérez-Escoda, N. (2016). Cuestionarios del GROP para la evalua- ción de la competencia emocional (CDE) [GROP questionnaires for the evaluation of emotional competence (CDE)]. In J. L. Soler, O. Díaz, E. Escolano-Pérez, & M.A. Rodríguez (Coords.), Inteligencia emocional y bienestar II. Reflexiones, experiencias profesionales e investigaciones [Emotional intelligence and well-being II. Reflections, professional experiences and research] (pp. 690-705). Ediciones Universidad San Jorge.

Pérez-Escoda, N., & Filella, G. (2019). Educación emocional para el desarrollo de competencias emocionales en niños y adoles- centes [Emotional learning for developing emotional skills in children and adolescents]. Praxis & Saber, 10 (24), 23-44. https://doi.org/10.19053/22160159.v10.n25.2019.8941

Pérez-Escoda, N., & López-Cassà, È. (Coords.) (2022). Retos para el bienestar social y emocional [Challenges to social and emotional well-being]. Wolters Kluwer.

Pérez-Escoda, N., López-Cassà, È. & Alegre, A. (2021). Emotional development questionnaire for primary education (CDE_9– 13). Education Sciences, 11 (11), 704. https://doi.org/10.3390/ educsci11110704

Petrides, K. V. (2009). Psychometric properties of the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQue). In C. Stough, D. H. Saklofske, & J. D. A. Parker (Eds.), Assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 85-101). Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387- 88370-0_5

Petrides, K. V., Pita, R., & Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional intelligence in personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology, 98 (2), 273-89. https://doi.org/10.1348/000712606X120618

Petrides, K. V., Sangareau, &., Furnham, A., & Frederickson, N. (2006). Trait emotional intelligence and children’s peer relations at school. Social Development, 15 (3), 537-547. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2006.00355.x

Rodríguez-Ledo, C., Orejudo, S., Celma, L., & Cardoso, M. J. (2018). Mejora de las competencias socioemocionales en el aula, con jóvenes de educación secundaria, mediante el programa SEA [Improving social-emotional competencies in the secondary education classroom through the SEA program]. Revista de Investigación Psicoeducativa, 3 (16), 681-701. https://doi.org/10.25115/ejrep.v16i46.2241

Ros-Morente, A., Cabello, E., & Filella, G. (2018). The effect of two emotional education programs in emotional and well-be- ing variables in children and adolescents. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 13 (9), 148-159. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v13i09.7841

Rosenberg, M. (1989). Society and the adolescent self-image (revised edition). Wesleyan University Press.

Ruvalcaba-Romero, N. A., Gallegos-Guajardo, J., & Fuerte, J. M. (2017). Competencias socioemocionales como predictoras de conductas prosociales y clima escolar positivo en adolescentes [Social and emotional skills as predictors of prosocial behavior and positive school climate in adolescence]. Revista Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado, 88 (31.1), 77-90. http://hdl.handle.net/10201/120531

Sánchez, L., Rodríguez, G., & García, E. (2018). Desarrollo de competencias emocionales a través del Programa AEdEm para educación secundaria [Emotional competences development through the program AEdEm for secondary education]. Revista Complutense de Educación, 24 (1), 35-52. https://doi.org/10.5209/RCED.54402

Schoeps, K., Tamarit, A., Postigo-Zegarra, S., & Montoya-Castilla, I. (2021). Los efectos a largo plazo de las competencias emocionales y la autoestima en los síntomas internalizantes en la adolescencia [The long-term effects of emotional competencies and self-esteem on adolescents’ internalizing symptoms]. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 26 (2), 113-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psicod.2020.12.001

Simkin, H., & Pérez-Marín, M. (2018). Personalidad y autoestima: un análisis sobre el importante papel de sus relaciones [Personality and self-esteem: An analysis of the important role of their association]. Terapia psicológica, 36 (1), 19-25. https://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0718-48082017000300015

Soto, G., Ferrándiz, C., Sainz, M., Ferrando, F., Prieto, M. D., Bermejo, R., & Hernández, D. (2011). Características psicométricas del cuestionario de personalidad BFQ-NA [Psychometric characteristics of personality questionnaire BFQ-NA]. Aula Abierta, 39 (1), 13-24.

Vargas, K., Villoría, Y. A., & López, V. M. (2018). Factores protectores de la conducta prosocial en adolescentes: un análisis de ruta [Protective factors of prosocial conduct in teenagers: A route analysis]. Revista Electrónica Psicología Iztacala, 21 (2), 563-589. https://www.revistas.unam.mx/index.php/repi/article/view/65290

Wagner, J., & Gerstorf, D. (2017). Introduction to the special section on self-esteem and personality across the lifespan: Antecedents of development and change. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 42 (1), 1-3 https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025416678094

Author Biography

Núria Pérez-Escoda. PhD in Educational Sciences and associate professor in the Department of Research Methods and Diagnosis in Education at the Universidad de Barcelona. Coordinator of the Educational Psychology Guidance Research Group (GROP) at the same university. Her main line of research is emotional education. She has led or collaborated in different R&D projects of Spain’s Ministry of Education and Science, as well as in other European projects (Erasmus+). She is also the author of several books relating to guidance and emotional education.

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6314-2792

Alberto Alegre. Full Professor in the Department of Early Childhood and Elementary Education of the East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania (USA). Founding member of the EIINA (Emotional Intelligence in Action) consultancy. Doctorate in Human Development from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech, Blacksburg). His research interests focus on research and dissemination in the field of emotional intelligence, a subject on which he has written several articles and books.

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7436-1728

Èlia López-Cassà. PhD in Educational Sciences and associate professor in the Department of Didactics and Educational Organization at the Universidad de Barcelona. She belongs to the Educational Psychopedagogical Guidance Research Group (GROP) at this university. Her research focuses on emotional education and the development of emotional competencies. She has published books, chapters, and articles, and has participated in several competitive research projects funded by Spain’s Ministry of Science and Innovation. She is currently the principal researcher at an international project on the implementation and evaluation of socioemotional competencies in primary and secondary education students, financed by the European Commission.

https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3870-8533

Josefina Álvarez-Justel. PhD in Educación Society, and Quality of Life at the Universidad de Lleida. She teaches and does research in the departments of Research and Diagnostic Methods and Diagnostics in Education at the Universidad de Lleida and the Universidad de Barcelona. She is a member of the Psychopedagogical Guidance Research Group (GROP) at the Universidad de Barcelona (GROP). Her main lines of research are tutoring and guidance, decision making, and emotional education, which she has dealt with in a number of publications.

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6844-4957

Included in

Education Commons

Share

COinS

Palabras clave | Keywords

emotional competence, questionnaire, validity, factor analysis, secondary education