Jugar correctamente: validación empírica de la escala Gamertype para el aprendizaje basado en juegos en la educación superior




The growing interest in applying gamified designs in higher education is challenged by mixed results in terms of student acceptance. Different players are attracted to games for different reasons and game design elements, and a better understanding of how each learner will connect to different game mechanics provides valuable input for game design and evaluation. In this paper, we present and validate a scale to measure the affinity of each player with different game elements. First, a theoretical review was carried out on three profile classifications and six motivational theoretical models, proposing a taxonomy for twelve player profiles based on three axes: relational, competence and motivational. Then, a pilot test was carried out with 54 subjects, analysing content and comprehension validity through the judgment of six experts and construct validity through an exploratory factorial analysis. Subsequently, with a sample of 1010 subjects, a confirmatory factor analysis was performed. The scale was made up of 30 items, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.822; three main components were obtained: dominators, interactors and trackers. The results show the validity of the scale, with high levels of confidence. It provides an understanding of the player’s profile in a playful context, their motivational orientation and their affinity with the specific game design. This can be used to improve the design of gamified experiences in higher education.

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Author Biography

Joel-Manuel Prieto-Andreu. PhD in Physical Activity and Sport Science s(cum laude and international doctorate) from the University of Murcia. He is an Associate Professor, focusing on sport psychology and gamification in education. He has collaborated in 4 research groups; he has presented 5 teaching innovation projects and 3 research projects, in two of which he has been principal investigator. He has been a speaker at more than 30 international and national conferences. He has published 4 books, 11 chapters and more than 45 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals. He is an associate editor and reviewer for several scientific journals.


Pablo Moreno-Ger. PhD in Computer Engineering from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Associate Professor at the International University of La Rioja (UNIR). He is currently the vice rector of Research at UNIR. Previously, he had been director of the School of Engineering and Technology at UNIR and deputy academic director of the same school. He was also a lecturer at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, where he was also vice-dean of Innovation. His research interests focus on the use of technology in education and, in particular, in higher education. He is the author of more than 200 publications in international journals and conferences.




Palabras clave | Keywords

scale, gamification, profile, player, validation, motivation, game-based learning, games, design, education, confirmatory analysis, exploratory analysis, factor analysis