Educación en la sombra en Latinoamérica: armando el rompecabezas




Shadow education is a widely used metaphor for private supplementary tutor- ing, i.e. instruction in academic subjects on a fee-charging basis outside school hours. The metaphor is used because much tutoring mim- ics schooling. Thus, as the curriculum changes in the schools, so it changes in the shadows; and as schooling grows, so does the shadow. Initially with particular prominence in East Asia, albeit with deep roots elsewhere, shadow education has expanded worldwide. The phenomenon has been mapped in Africa, Asia, Europe, the Mid- dle East and North America, but has received modest attention in Latin America. This article provides an overview of the phenomenon in the region using available data and stressing the need for further research. It presents global as well as Latin American contextual factors and drivers of demand before turning to data on the scale, nature and suppliers of shadow education. The assembled picture then permits commentary on educational and social impact, and on policy implications.

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Author Biography

Mark Bray. UNESCO chair in Comparative Education at the University of Hong Kong. He has been employed by that University since 1986. Between 2006 and 2010, he took leave to work in Paris as director of UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP); and between 2018 and 2023, he worked at East China Normal University, Shanghai, where he was director of the Centre for International Research in Supplementary Tutoring (CIRIST). Professor Bray wrote the first global study of shadow education, published by UNESCO IIEP in 1999. Since then, he has (co-) authored or (co-)edited 11 books and 80 articles/chapters on the theme. His work has made direct inputs to policy making in multiple countries.


Alexandre Ventura. Portuguese scholar, professor and researcher within the Department of Education and Psychology at the University of Aveiro, Portugal. His career features key roles, including Portuguese Deputy Minister of Education (2009-2010), Deputy Chief Inspector of Education in Portugal (2007), and active participation in the Standing International Conference of Inspectorates (SICI). He also served as senior school inspector in Dubai from 2017 to 2020. Dr Ventura is highly sought after as a speaker, consultant, and researcher, specializing in areas such as shadow education, program evaluation, policy assessment, teacher appraisal, school inspection, and educational administration. His impactful contributions span multiple countries, including the United States, France, Spain, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cyprus, North Macedonia, and the United Arab Emirates.


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